음성출장샵╚예약✈음성중국모델 슈가【음성여자친구 마사지】↽〈음성출장서비스〉⇤음성텀블러 마사지▨음성안마방 몇시➼음성타이마사지 서비스☀음성체코 마사지➽음성구로 마사지

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

대전출장안마
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

음성출장샵✔출장부르는법➚음성중국모델 슈가【음성중국모델 슈가】┏〈음성신포동 마사지〉▽음성전립선 마사지 기구⇁음성모텔 걸◐음성안마방 입문↺음성서울 출장 마사지╞음성림프선 마사지

The governments of more than 190 nations 수원도쿄 안마방 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

음성출장샵◐예약금없는출장샵ソ음성중국모델 슈가【음성안마방 알바 썰】♠〈음성안마방 팁〉的음성안마방 수면실┷음성남포동 안마방❤음성마사지 사정⇘음성선릉 마사지♜음성범계역 안마방

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

음성출장샵◐24시출장샵✪음성중국모델 슈가【음성유성 마사지】⇩〈음성fc2 남친 마사지〉▶음성건전 마사지↸음성연산동 안마방↧음성석계 안마방‿음성장유 마사지┷음성tumblr 마사지

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 온라인카지노 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

음성출장샵✆24시출장샵ξ음성중국모델 슈가【음성타이 안마방】ク〈음성삼성역 마사지〉☣음성방콕 마사지 가격┩음성기흥구청 마사지0음성출장 보증금◄음성안마방 여자친구▦음성광주 대딸방

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 동인천여대생 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

음성출장샵⇪출장부르는법╨음성중국모델 슈가【음성안마방 비용】┯〈음성수안보 안마방〉◥음성콜걸만남☂음성아로마 마사지 팬티╈음성카톡 출장 만남⇖음성안마방 옵션➺음성서울 출장 후기

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 창원출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

음성출장샵음성여관 비용

  • 사천등 마사지 방법
  • 음성산본 마사지
  • 음성출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    음성출장샵┫24시출장샵►음성중국모델 슈가【음성손목 마사지】↶〈음성가락시장 마사지〉┻음성경산 안마방╬음성안마방 예약◙음성조건 만남 서울웃음성논산 안마방▤음성에가오 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 인천용인 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, dhc2016.xyz . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    부산출장안마
    거창장애인 안마방 수원출장안마 봉화아로마 마사지 부작용
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 창원출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    음성출장샵◎출장부르는법⇜음성중국모델 슈가【음성콜걸출장안마】✄〈음성전효성 마사지〉§음성안마방 아줌마⇤음성흉쇄유돌근 마사지0음성송탄 마사지√음성존슨즈 베이비 오일 마사지☑음성동대문구 안마방

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 경상북도종아리 마사지 기계 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    음성출장샵◐예약↙음성중국모델 슈가【음성서울대입구 마사지】▣〈음성연신내 안마방〉┵음성태국 안마방エ음성중국 안마방☂음성장안동 마사지↜음성안마방 커뮤니티♐음성합정 안마방

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 원주출장안마 .

    함안하노이 마사지
    대전포항 양덕 마사지 bein.xyz 군산해수욕 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    음성출장샵┘예약금없는출장샵↕음성중국모델 슈가【음성방콕 마사지 비용】╊〈음성캄보디아 마사지〉↿음성포르치오 마사지►음성칠곡 마사지♥음성안산 마사지☈음성카톡↪음성구미 모텔

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 대구출장샵 .

    음성출장샵┵예약▣음성중국모델 슈가【음성중국 마사지 체험기】╣〈음성강서구 안마방〉ο음성fc2 오일 마사지♐음성전립선 마사지 하는 법⇪음성마사지 후기☁음성인천공항 마사지☪음성다이소 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 카지노사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 구미대전 출장 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    음성출장샵☂예약금없는출장샵♡음성중국모델 슈가【음성스포츠마사지 자격증】♜〈음성호치민 마사지〉☞음성지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지⇠음성출장연애인급➹음성두정동 안마방0음성광주 여관☈음성장유 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    음성출장샵◆예약⇁음성중국모델 슈가【음성삼산동 마사지】◕〈음성아내 마사지〉⇙음성검암 안마방♠음성뱃살 마사지♧음성안마방 안마➳음성국산_신작_안마방▨음성안마방 스텝

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 영덕화곡동 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 대구출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 포항출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 군산광주 터미널 근처 모텔 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that undersite.xyz . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    음성출장샵♝출장부르는법✎음성중국모델 슈가【음성부산 모텔 아가씨】↤〈음성타이 마사지 토렌트〉⇛음성평택 모텔 추천╯음성여성 전용 마사지 알바♂음성위례 마사지☒음성거제 안마방ヨ음성베트남 하노이 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 온라인카지노 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 포항출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and gogotown.xyz showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    음성출장샵↼출장부르는법┢음성중국모델 슈가【음성향남 마사지】✙〈음성출장여대생〉●음성가락동 마사지☼음성출장아가씨⇃음성창녕 마사지☀음성마사지 일본❄음성서귀포 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    전라남도평택 모텔 추천
    평택출장샵 진안안마방 찾는법 진주출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    음성출장샵⇛24시출장샵×음성중국모델 슈가【음성출장색시미녀언니】➢〈음성신설동 안마방〉⇜음성모텔 다방◐음성선릉 마사지☴음성싸인볼 마사지유음성구글 재펜☏음성천호 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.음성출장샵음성젖몸살 마사지☚ 음성정액 마사지↔〈음성오리역 안마방〉음성안마방 터치囍음성검단 안마방◘음성마사지 단속ニ음성안마방 발기⇛대전출장안마24시출장샵음성강동구 안마방↘음성동대문구 안마방↺《음성모란 안마방》음성마곡 마사지ヘ음성경산 사우나 마사지⊕음성여친 마사지☞음성서귀포 마사지┨음성출장샵김해안마방 후기음성안마방 비용╗음성사천 안마방∴﹛음성시흥 안마방﹜음성안마방 비비기✖음성마사지 출장⊿음성기획 마사지ヘ음성유방 마사지┒음성주갤 안마방☭음성길동 안마방↦[음성창원 봉곡동 안마방]음성판상근 마사지✐음성렉시벨 마사지シ음성사타구니 마사지▒음성엘프 마사지☜음성김무열 마사지☱음성동대구역 여관☀{음성사각근 마사지}음성안마방 동창☶음성종아리 근육 마사지ソ음성안마방 장부▪음성안마방 태국〓음성안마방 여자→음성아로마 마사지♨﹛음성강릉 타이 마사지﹜음성셀프 어깨 마사지┳음성춘천 마사지↝음성마산 모텔 추천▷음성전주 마사지 클럽⇆예약금없는출장샵제천아가씨 썰예약음성청주 안마방 가격♤음성인도 마사지▶《음성타이 마사지 토렌트》음성안마방 질내사정♥음성타이마사지 불법♚음성서양 안마방↩음성커플 마사지 tumblrξ음성출장샵음성출장샵dkevent.xyz음성역곡 마사지음성마사지 젤음성세종시 마사지음성팔 마사지음성출장샵음성조건 만남 카페♠음성인천안마♂〔음성오산 타이 마사지〕음성모텔출장마사지샵╩음성천안 조건♡음성제주 연동 마사지§음성안마방 입에 사정囍부여안마방 촬영

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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